The all-around barter of aliment is a assorted and circuitous operation and one in which best countries strive to booty part. Governments admit that a able national aliment industry is an important supplier of aliment to the citizenry and a significant contributor to aliment security. They additionally appearance aliment exports as an important antecedent of adopted exchange. The amplification and about-face of the aliment barter can be attributed to abounding factors. First, the disciplines of aliment microbiology, aliment allure and food technology are continuously accouterment a broader ambit of foods by developing new and more adult preservation, processing and packaging techniques which accomplish foods safer, beneath decaying and added adorable to the consumer. Second, accelerated carriage and improved administering methods accept bargain the breadth of time and difficulties associated with moving aliment continued distances, appropriately acceptance traders admission to new and far-away markets. Third, consumers’ tastes and aliment habits accept become added assorted and their incomes and purchasing ability accept risen, aesthetic the appeal for able and new foods from added regions.
Whether a country is a net aliment importer or exporter may be bent by factors such as bounded altitude for agronomical assembly and aliment manufacturing, costs and demands for calm or adopted aliment articles and bread-and-butter activities which provide added sources of income. An accretion cardinal of countries are able both significant importers and exporters of food. It is accustomed for countries that are arrogant in aliment or accept an balance of aliment to additionally acceptation some aliment products. At the aforementioned time, countries that are not arrogant in aliment may consign some of their products, abnormally back these foods are abundant approved afterwards abroad and accompany exceptional prices.
The amount of the all-embracing aliment barter afresh exceeded US$380 000 actor per year (FAO, 1997). In 1994, Europe played a absolute role in the aliment trade, accounting for about 50 percent of all imports and 45 percent of all exports. At that time Asia was the additional best important contributor to international trade, with 22 percent of aliment imports and 18 percent of aliment exports. Countries in Latin America and the Caribbean had acquired a cogent bazaar share, while Africa and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Absolute States (CIS) captivated a baby allotment of the all-embracing bazaar (see Figure).
Despite the alterity in favour of the developed countries in the share of all-embracing trade, developing countries accept been accepting a stronger ballast in all-around markets. Amid 1980 and 1994, the accession of the aliment area of developing countries to the all-embracing apple amount added by 3.5 percent, while that of the European Union added by 4.3 percent and that of North America by alone 2.4 percent (UNIDO, 1997).
Source: FAO, 1997.
World barter of aliment articles by region, 1994
As the accompaniment of the aliment industry and aliment assembly has changed, so too accept the accustomed ambiance in which aliment is traded and the rules that are applied. All-embracing trading in aliment aforetime took abode with little, if any, government intervention, and it was accustomed that the aliment producers set their own standards and bent the affection of aliment articles offered to consumers. Abounding traders were reputable and amenable and took abundant affliction to assure the bloom of consumers. However, some backbiting aliment traders begin that the able markets gave them an excellent befalling to accomplishment consumers through arbitrary barter practices associated with pricing, bribery of articles and ambiguous labelling. Such abuses led to government captivation and, over time, the achievement of aliment laws and regulations and the enactment of aliment ascendancy agencies to ensure that all domestically produced food, alien aliment and exported aliment complied with the adapted laws. These laws, regulations and agencies comprise the aliment ascendancy arrangement which today provides essential abutment to the aliment industry and exporters. With the accretion aggregate of barter among countries, difficulties arising from the absolute enactment of laws and standards in altered countries are able evident.
Variations in the procedures of civic aliment ascendancy systems involving ecology and sampling, apprehension and analytic methods, appliance of standards and aliment affirmation requirements can accord acceleration to barter restrictions. On some occasions countries accept developed standards that were not based on science and in aftereffect were annihilation more than non-tariff barriers to trade. It has become attainable that there is a charge to harmonize aliment requirements globally and there is a growing charge for all-embracing guidelines and rules. These guidelines and rules are now provided aural the framework of the recently accustomed Apple Barter Organization (WTO). The Uruguay Round barter agreements booty the admission of adopting all-embracing standards and codes of practice; this admission can be accustomed to abatement the aberration in requirements imposed in the accomplished by different countries.
The capital apparatus to abetment countries in the harmonization of food standards is the Codex Alimentarius, a accumulating of internationally adopted food standards, best balance banned for pesticides and residues of veterinary drugs and codes of practice. The Codex Alimentarius Commission is cited as the advertence point for standards accordant to aliment affection and affirmation in the Acceding on the Appliance of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and the Acceding on Abstruse Barriers to Trade, discussed after in this article. The objectives of the Codex programme are to assure the bloom of consumers, to ensure fair practices in the aliment barter and to advance the allocation of all aliment standards assignment undertaken by civic governments.
As allotment of the harmonization activity anniversary government charge ensure that the legislation basal its country’s aliment ascendancy arrangement is scientifically based and must assignment to authorize adequation and accuracy amid civic aliment ascendancy systems. The use of all-embracing standards additionally allows countries to accent the use of their often bound assets and to apply on accident assay and accurate investigations which may be specific to their own countries.
Decisions on multilateral barter accept led to cogent changes in the all-around barter of both commodity and services. While the continuing trend appear trade liberalization gives aliment producers added admission to all-embracing markets, it also presents new challenges in acceding of ensuring the affection and affirmation of calm and exported aliment supplies. As the aggregate of aliment traded increases, there is greater potential for advertisement consumers in one country to the problems that can activity in accession country. Although abstruse advancements accomplish it attainable to address articles from one ancillary of the apple to the added aural a few days, corruption of a good-quality aliment before, during or after busline and accumulator may cede it baby or alarming by the time it alcove the consumer. Exporting countries will charge to accommodated the requirements of their trading partners and to accede with acceptation rules and procedures.
The Uruguay Round barter negotiations were assured in 1994 and led to the enactment of the Apple Barter Organization in 1995. WTO and the associated agreements accommodate a abject of facilitating all-embracing barter and intergovernmental trade arrangements. During the Uruguay Round, agronomics was included in barter talks in a cogent way for the aboriginal time. These barter talks led to two bounden agreements accordant to aliment regulations: the Acceding on the Appliance of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and the Acceding on Abstruse Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement). The SPS and TBT agreements set important ambit administering the acceptance and accomplishing of aliment affection and affirmation measures. They are advised to abbreviate the abominable and adverse furnishings of aliment regulations.
The SPS Acceding calls for a programme of harmonization of national requirements based on all-embracing standards. With absorption to aliment affirmation measures, WTO associates should abject their civic standards on all-embracing standards, guidelines and added recommendations adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission area they exist.
The cold of the TBT Acceding is to anticipate the bottomless use of civic or bounded abstruse requirements, or standards in general, as technical barriers to trade. The TBT covers all types of standards including those accompanying to food such as standards of quality, comestible requirements, labelling and methods of analysis. It includes measures advised to assure the customer adjoin bamboozlement and economic fraud.
When a altercation occurs amid two countries WTO encourages them to acquisition a mutually able solution. If this is not attainable there are several alternative dispute procedures, including acceptable offices, conciliation, adjudication and arbitration. Alternatively, an candid console of experts may be convened to apprehend all abandon of the altercation and accomplish recommendations. If the console concludes that a country is actionable its obligations beneath either of the Uruguay Round agreements, it will commonly acclaim that the country booty such activity as all-important to accompany its behind measures into conformity with its obligations beneath the agreement.
Success of aliment barter at the all-embracing akin depends abundantly on the anatomy and amount of ascendancy at the civic akin and the acquiescence with the agreements mentioned above. While the onus is on the aliment industry to aftermath safe and high-quality products, the government has a albatross to accommodate a civic food ascendancy arrangement with a acknowledging infrastructure, to accept an advising and authoritative role and, back necessary, to accomplish aliment laws. The government’s aliment ascendancy agencies charge to assure consumers that they accept set and will accomplish standards for the affection and safety of foods. These agencies charge to assignment with aliment producers in a accommodating and collaborative address to ensure the affection and affirmation of exports through appropriate inspection, testing and acceptance methods.
A above challenge, in accession to that of ensuring that aliment is produced in a controlled environment, is that of demonstrating that the ascendancy measures implemented are effective. Trading ally generally appeal affirmation that the industry has implemented adapted ascendancy measures to accommodate a agreement of the affection and safety of the food. To accommodate this authoritative affirmation the civic aliment ascendancy systems should be based on a approved framework accurate by authoritative offices, inspectors and analysts with able laboratories and added accessories bare for effective administering of the laws and regulations. Ascendancy measures should be in abode to control aliment affirmation problems accompanying to pesticide residues, abundant metals, automated chemicals, radionuclides, mycotoxins and new challenges as they arise.
In aspect the civic aliment ascendancy arrangement supports barter by arena a bifold role, accouterment able abutment to the aliment ambassador or exporter and acceptable the customer of the affection and affirmation of alien aliment products.
Control of aliment imports is capital to ensure a safe aliment accumulation and to anticipate the “dumping” of lesser-quality food. The development of an effective aliment ascendancy arrangement to adviser aliment imports should be advancing and should include record-keeping of bedfast aliment products, suppliers, etc. to acquiesce able follow-up activity area aliment consignments abjure the civic aliment acceptation law.
The accent of a able aliment acceptation ascendancy arrangement is accurate by abstracts on acceptation detentions and rejections. The United States Aliment and Drug Administration (USFDA) provides abundant account letters on detentions of aliment alien into the United States and makes this advice attainable through the Internet (see Table). The Table summarizes abstracts accoutrement the periods July to December 1996 and January to June 1997. The best accustomed acumen for bounce of aliment articles during both periods was contamination with carrion from insects, rodents or birds, advertence poor levels of aseptic practices in aliment processing and handling. Following this, the capital affidavit for acceptation detentions included microbiological contamination, contravention of low-acid canned aliment procedures, abuse of labelling rules, balance levels of pesticide residues and decomposition. The United States uses a risk-based arrangement with automated apprehension back a botheration has been accent in a accurate aliment consignment. It is alone back the aliment affirmation affair has been bound that the bound will be opened to bedfast aliment consignments already again.
Reason for apprehension
Number of detentions, July-December 1996
Number of detentions, January-June 1997
Low-acid canned food
Total cardinal of reasons (contraventions cited) for detentions
Number of consignments
Source: Internet armpit of USFDA, Center for Aliment Affirmation and Applied Nutrition, Acceptation Awareness Programme (http://www.fda.gov/ora/ids/ora_ids_access.html).
The albatross for ensuring the affection and affirmation of aliment exports and for preventing aliment consignments from actuality bedfast or alone at the point of acceptation lies mainly with the aliment ambassador and authoritative ascendancy in the exporting country. A safe and good-quality artefact should be the aftereffect of able ascendancy at all stages of the aliment alternation rather than antidotal activity taken backward in the process.
Good agronomical practices and acceptable aliment hygiene and manufacturing practices to ascendancy atomization and insect and rodent burglary and to assure proper use of assembly inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides and beastly drugs should be activated at all times. Ascendancy over best of berry and appliance of fertilizers and pesticides, ascendancy of weeds, pests and diseases and allocation and charwoman can advance the affection of the product. This affiliation of assembly and processing allows for closer ascendancy over the affection of the raw abstracts and safe administering of the product. If the processing ability is amid abreast the antecedent of raw materials, producers are able to accept greater ascendancy over all stages of aliment assembly including primary production. Clearly, affection control, including acceptable accumulator and busline practices, good accomplishment practices and hygiene controls, charge abide through production, storage, transportation, processing, packaging and labelling, administering and alertness of food. To enhance the capability of these practices the development of affection affirmation and risk-based hygiene ascendancy systems is an important footfall forward. Affection affirmation systems such as the Hazard Assay Critical Ascendancy Point (HACCP) arrangement will animate the food industry and government akin to ascendancy aliment assembly by apperception on the critical factors to ensure aliment affection and safety.
These practices can abetment aliment processors in affair customer demands for high-quality and safe foods. The change in accent from end-product testing (i.e. affection ascendancy procedures such as sampling and assay of the final product) to the appliance of affection affirmation during production, processing, packaging and distribution is broadly accustomed as benign to the aliment industry. Measures can be activated with more cost-effectiveness and usually with greater authoritativeness of accomplishing the adapted result. These measures advance to bigger competitiveness, bigger quality, bargain costs of production, beneath diffusion and greater achievement of consumers. Furthermore, the accomplishing of affection affirmation systems such as HACCP is accepting accretion importance as abounding countries are now authoritative it a acknowledged claim for alien foods.
The all-embracing barter of aliment is growing as countries await on each added to defended an able and assorted aliment accumulation through the acceptation and consign of food products. The opportunities for added advance are encouraged through chargeless international barter on the abject of the Uruguay Round agreements and the enactment of WTO. Countries will accept bigger admission to consign markets, but this bigger admission will be accompanied by greater antagonism and the charge to ensure aplomb in the affirmation of the aliment supply. This is decidedly arduous to developing countries, area affection affirmation systems in the aliment industry and aliment ascendancy systems should be strengthened. Abundant accordingly needs to be done so that all countries can booty abounding advantage of new possibilities for free all-embracing barter and so that the allusive advantages in anniversary country can be exploited to aftermath assorted aliment articles in a cost-effective way with absorption to bigger aliment affection and safety.
FAO. 1997. The Accompaniment of Aliment and Agronomics 1997. Rome.United Nations Automated Development Organization (UNIDO). 1997. International Yearbook of Automated Statistics 1997. Vienna, Austria.
The all-embracing barter of aliment is growing as countries await on anniversary added to defended an able and assorted aliment supply. More countries are able both cogent importers and exporters of food. Countries that are arrogant in aliment or accept an balance of aliment additionally acceptation some aliment products. Countries that are not arrogant in aliment may consign some aliment products, especially back these foods command exceptional prices. The amplification and about-face of the all-around aliment barter can be attributed to innovations in aliment preservation, processing and packaging techniques which accomplish foods safer, beneath decaying and added adorable to consumers; accelerated carriage and improved administering methods which abate the breadth of time and difficulties of affective aliment long distances; and alteration tastes and added purchasing ability which activate consumer appeal for able and new foods from added regions. By the mid-1990s, the amount of the all-embracing aliment barter exceeded US$380 000 actor per year. Barter liberalization presents new challenges in acceding of ensuring the affection and safety of calm and exported aliment supplies. While the onus is on the aliment industry to produce aliment exports that are safe and of aerial quality, governments are amenable for providing a civic aliment ascendancy arrangement to accept an advising and authoritative role. Aliment control agencies charge to ensure consumers that aliment imports will accommodated aliment standards. As the aggregate of barter increases, difficulties appear because anniversary country has accustomed laws and standards independently. There is a charge to accord aliment requirements globally and to set all-embracing guidelines and rules. The capital apparatus to abetment countries in the harmonization of aliment standards is the Codex Alimentarius. The Apple Barter Organization’s Acceding on the Appliance of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Acceding on Abstruse Barriers to Barter set important ambit administering the acceptance and accomplishing of aliment affection and affirmation measures. They are advised to minimize abominable and adverse furnishings of aliment regulations. While bigger admission to export markets brings new opportunities, added barter will be accompanied by greater antagonism and the charge to ensure aplomb in the aliment supply. This is particularly arduous to developing countries area affection affirmation systems in the aliment industry and aliment ascendancy systems should be strengthened. Abundant needs to be done so that all countries can booty abounding advantage of new possibilities for chargeless all-embracing trade.
Les changes internationaux de vivres se dveloppent, du fait que les pays ont besoin les uns des autres cascade assurer un approvisionnement adquat et vari. Le nombre de pays qui sont la fois des importateurs et des exportateurs importants de produits alimentaires est en augmentation. Les pays autosuffisants sur le plan alimentaire ou dont la assembly est excdentaire importent aussi quelques denres. Les pays ne produisant pas suffisamment cascade leur consommation peuvent exporter quelques produits alimentaires, surtout s’ils peuvent en tirer un meilleur prix. L’expansion et la about-face des changes alimentaires mondiaux peuvent tre attribues plusieurs facteurs: innovations des techniques de conservation, de transformation et de conditionnement qui rendent les aliments additional srs, moins prissables et additional attrayants cascade les consommateurs; rapidit des transports et mthodes de manutention amliores qui rduisent la dure et les problmes des transports sur de longues distances; et l’volution des gots des consommateurs et l’augmentation du pouvoir d’achat qui stimulent la demande d’aliments traditionnels et nouveaux provenant d’autres rgions. Au ambience des annes 90, les changes internationaux de vivres se chiffraient additional de 380 milliards de dollars EU par an. La libralisation des changes s’accompagne de nouveaux problmes en ce qui concerne l’assurance de la qualit et de l’innocuit des disponibilits alimentaires intrieures et exportes. Il appartient aux industriels de produire des aliments exportables sains et de bonne qualit, mais le gouvernement doit mettre leur disposition un systme civic de contrle des aliments qui ambience une fonction advising et normative. Les organismes de contrle doivent garantir aux consommateurs que les denres importes sont conformes aux normes alimentaires. A mesure que le volume des changes augmente, des difficults apparaissent car chaque pays a tabli des lois et des normes qui lui sont propres. Il est basal d’harmoniser les dispositions alimentaires au plan international, et de dfinir des directives et des rgles internationales. Le arch apparatus cascade aider les pays harmoniser les normes alimentaires est le Codex Alimentarius. L’Accord de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce sur l’application des mesures sanitaires et phytosanitaires et l’Accord relatif aux obstacles techniques au business tablissent d’importants paramtres rgissant l’adoption et l’application des mesures destines garantir la qualit et l’innocuit des aliments. Le but est de minimiser les effets discriminatoires et ngatifs des rglementations alimentaires. L’amlioration de l’accs aux marchs d’exportation offre de nouvelles possibilits mais, avec l’augmentation des changes, la concurrence s’intensifiera et il faudra instaurer la confiance dans les aliments offerts sur le march. Cela sera particulirement problmatique dans les pays en dveloppement o les casework d’assurance-qualit, dans le secteur de l’industrie alimentaire, et les systmes de contrle des aliments doivent tre renforcs. Il reste acclamation beaucoup faire cascade que tous les pays puissent tirer accumulation des nouvelles possibilits de libre-change international.
El comercio internacional de alimentos crece cuando los pases dependen unos de otros para conseguir un suministro suficiente y variado de alimentos. Cada vez es ambassador el nmero de pases que importan y exportan grandes cantidades de alimentos. Pases que son autosuficientes en alimentos o tienen excedentes alimentarios importan sin embargo algunos productos alimenticios. Tambin es posible que pases que no son autosuficientes en alimentos exporten algunos productos alimenticios, especialmente si se paga por ellos un sobreprecio. La expansin y diversificacin del comercio mundial de alimentos puede atribuirse a las innovaciones en las tcnicas de conservacin, elaboracin y envasado de alimentos que hacen que stos sean ms inocuos, menos perecederos y ms atractivos para los consumidores; a un transporte rpido y mtodos mejorados de manipulacin que reducen la duracin y las dificultades del desplazamiento de alimentos a larga distancia; a cambios en los gustos y al aumento del poder adquisitivo que estimulan la demanda de alimentos tradicionales y nuevos de otras regiones. A mediados del decenio de 1990, el backbone del comercio internacional de alimentos exceda de 380 000 millones de dlares al ao. La liberalizacin del comercio plantea nuevos desafos en lo que se refiere a la garanta de la calidad e inocuidad de los suministros de alimentos internos y exportados. Aunque corresponde a la industria alimentaria exportar alimentos que sean inocuos y de alta calidad, es cometido del gobierno proporcionar un sistema nacional de ascendancy de los alimentos que desempee una funcin de asesoramiento y reglamentacin. Los organismos encargados del ascendancy de los alimentos han de asegurar a los consumidores que los alimentos importados se ajusten a las normas alimentarias. A medida que aumenta el volumen del comercio, las dificultades crecen porque cada pas ha establecido sus leyes y normas de manera independiente. Es necesario armonizar los requisitos alimentarios a nivel mundial y fijar directrices y reglas internacionales. El arch instrumento para ayudar a los pases a armonizar sus normas alimentarias es el Codex Alimentarius. Los acuerdos de la Organizacin Mundial del Comercio sobre la Aplicacin de Medidas Sanitarias y Fitosanitarias y sobre Obstculos Tcnicos al Comercio establecen los principales parmetros que han de guiar la adopcin y aplicacin de medidas en materia de calidad e inocuidad de los alimentos, con objeto de reducir al mnimo los efectos discriminatorios y adversos de las reglamentaciones alimentarias. Si bien la mejora del acceso a los mercados de exportacin ofrece nuevas oportunidades, el aumento del comercio ir acompaado de una ambassador competencia, as como de la necesidad de asegurar la confianza en los alimentos que se suministran. Esto plantea un problema arduo a los pases en desarrollo, en los que debern reforzarse los sistemas de garanta de la calidad en la industria alimentaria y los sistemas de ascendancy de los alimentos. Queda abounding por hacer para que todos los pases puedan aprovechar plenamente las nuevas posibilidades que brinda el libre comercio internacional.
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